t. (518) 561-7450
f. (518) 561.0183
e. clinton@cornell.edu
w. cceclinton.org

CCE ENYCHP Berry E-Alert

Berry E-Alert ~ May 27, 2020 Berry Office Hours

Join Esther Kibbe on Thursday, May 28 that 12:30pm for berry office hours.

Click link below to join

https://cornell.zoom.us/j/95514586018

Password: 4FyY8D

Or dial by phone: 1-646-518-9805

Meeting ID: 955 1458 6018 Berry To-Do All Berries

Get ready for a U-pick season unlike others. Make sure you’ve read the BMP’s for You –Pick during COVID-19. https://rvpadmin.cce.cornell.edu/uploads/doc_864.pdf

Strawberries

The cold weather is behind us in a big way – from famine to feast in terms of growing degree days. Just a few short weeks ago we were concerned about wet soils, but now hoping for some rain in most areas. Those fields that were heavily irrigated for frost protection may benefit in terms of soil moisture that will improve strawberry size.

Fruit set on early cultivars in the south and full bloom in the north. Early blossoms are showing considerable frost damage but secondary flowers will result in a reasonable crop. Early and late cultivars will be condensed due to the heat – making weather during that first two weekend of You-Pick a critical component of success.

Tarnished plants bugs, spider mites and strawberry clipper are active now. Insecticides should be avoided now that we are in bloom, but keep looking for issues so that you are ready at petal fall.

Low tunnel strawberries in need of a drink.

Photo: E. Kibbe

Small populations of strawberry bud weevil were seen last week. These insects girdles strawberry flower bud. If you see 1-2 clipped buds in a two foot section of row you should take action. Look along field edges first. Perimeter sprays may be effective. Insecticide options for clipper include Lorsban, Brigade, Sevin and PyGanic.

Scout for the tarnished plant bug nymphs, shake 30 flower clusters (six clusters in five different locations) over a plate. If four or more of the clusters out of the 30 sampled have any nymphs, control measures should be taken. Insecticide options include Assail, Brigade, Danitol, and PyGanic.

Weak or stunted plants may indicate root problems. Now is a good time to evaluate for root weevils and red stele disease. To diagnose red stele, pull up a few plants that look weak and scrape the roots of these plants to see if the center is reddish orange in color. Red stele is caused by a soil pathogen that infects roots when soils are wet with temperatures around 50°F and the symptoms are most evident in the spring. Ridomil Gold®, Alliette® or Phostrol® are fungicides that can be applied in the late fall or early spring for control of red stele. In newly planted beds, RootShield® may be applied as a pre-plant root dip to help prevent infections.

Root weevil larvae can be found at root zone bow - you can start to look for leaf notching as well.

Keep an eye out for young gypsy moth caterpillars, which have blown out of the trees. They aren’t particularly interested in strawberries, but will eat them if they are in the neighborhood. Gypsy moth can be a bigger problem in blueberries, defoliating entire plants. Dipel can be used to control these if they get bad.

Angular leaf spot due to sprinkling for frost protection is a concern, although I haven’t seen it yet in eastern NY. Copper should not be sprayed during bloom. Oxidate/Rendition is the safest option for now.

The lower Hudson Valley got a few small showers, but north of Albany is VERY dry so be sure to get irrigation equipment into the field if it isn’t set up already. Adequate moisture is key for fruit size, yield and overall plant health. Blueberries Blueberry bloom looks very strong in most places. Set looks good in early varieties in all locations. Fungicide applications at bloom will help prevent fruit molds – specifically anthracnose. If you have had issues with cranberry and cherry fruitworm in the past – now is the time to put out traps. More information below about these pests. Brambles Floricane brambles are flowering with some bud set in the south. Primocanes are pushing nicely throughout the region. Ribes Currants and gooseberries are at fruit set and full bloom from south to north. < Efficacy of Various Fungicides

It is important to protect open blossoms against gray mold, especially if you get rain or heavy dew. You won’t see the infection until fruiting, but this is the time for prevention. Good control is achieved with a fungicide applied at early bloom and followed up again 10 days later. David Strickland and Kerik Cox did some work recently comparing the efficacy of the various fungicides against gray mold and anthracnose (see chart). The important take-aways are that Switch, Fontelis and Rovral are the best products, while Captan, Pristine, Serenade Opti and Cueva seemed little better than the untreated control. Figure 1. Mean percent incidence of gray mold (grey) and anthracnose (orange) post-harvest on ‘Albion’ day-neutral strawberries treated in a planting on plastic in a high tunnel for different fungicide and biopesticides. Values represent means and standard errors of six replicates from three experimental repeats. Statistical significant differences mentioned in the text were assessed at the (α = 0.05) using to the LSMEANS procedure of SAS 9.4 with an adjustment for Tukey’s HSD to control for family-wise error.

(From Strickland and Cox, Best Fungicides for Strawberry Fruit Rots 2020.)

Cranberry Fruitworm and Cherry Fruitworm

Michigan State University Fruit Crop Advisory, Fruitworm Control in Blueberries (R. Isaacs, J. Wise) 5/17/16 Laura’s Note: These insects have caused considerable damage across the region during the last two years. Consider putting up traps to monitor for their activity. A well timed spray will help control pests this year and may help reduce the problems in future years.

ID/Life Cycle: Both Cranberry Fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii) and Cherry Fruitworm (Grapholita packardi) are native to North America, as are the blueberries they infest. The adult forms of these fruitworms are small brownish-gray or grayish-black moths. Eggs are laid near the calyx of green fruit and are pale creamy color. Larvae found within blueberry fruit in June are small and pale yellowish or pinkish in color. CFW larvae have dark brown heads.

Fruitworms overwinter as larvae in the duff around bushes or field edges and pupate in the spring, emerging as adult moths after the start of bloom and usually before early fruit set. Cherry Fruitworm (CFW) emerges earlier than Cranberry Fruitworm (CBFW). Once mated, moths move into blueberry plantings when fruit is small and green to lay eggs directly on the fruit. Larvae then tunnel into the fruit and begin feeding. Infested fruit turn prematurely blue making them easy to identify when scouting. Larvae will consume from 3-6 berries, filling them with brown frass, and web together fruit with silk. The frass from CFW remains inside the fruit whereas that from CBFW is pushed out and visible. Upon reaching maturity, larvae leave the berries and move to over-wintering sites. There is one generation per year.

Damage: Larvae feed on ripening fruit. Feeding reduces the crop and spoils marketability of the berries.

Management

Monitoring: Pheromone traps can be used to monitor male populations of these pests and helps to identify the initial flight into a blueberry planting. Lures are available for both species. Traps should be placed during bloom with a minimum 50’ buffer between them. Monitor trap catches twice weekly and remove moths caught each time you check in order to identify when sustained captures occur. Secondary scouting can be done for egg laying by inspecting the calyx end of green fruit with a hand lens. Scout the periphery of the planting especially near woods and hedgerows. Finally, scout for infested fruit by looking for prematurely pigmented berries.

Developmental Model: Fruitworm development is closely related to weather conditions for both species and can be predicted with reasonable accuracy using Degree Day accumulations. Cherry Fruitworm is thought to emerge at approximately 230 GDD Base 50˚F from March 1. Cranberry Fruitworm emerges later, around 350 GDD Base 50˚F. Emergence can be confirmed by using pheromone traps that capture male moths of each species during their first flight. Noting the start of sustained trap captures can be used as the biofix for the developmental model.

The important stage to forecast for either species is egg-laying which, for CBFW, occurs during the period of 85-400 GDD Base 50˚F after the onset of sustained adult activity or flight (biofix). Therefore CBFW egg laying is generally predicted to take place during the period of 435-750 GDD Base 50˚F. Modeling for CFW egg-laying is not currently available but is likely somewhat earlier than CBFW Control strategies

Cultural/Biological

Eliminate weeds and trash around plants to minimize protective overwintering habitat for larvae.

Clean cultivate between rows to disrupt pupation sites and reduce the population of this pest.

Hand pick and destroy infested fruit in small plantings.

Preserve natural enemies whenever possible by selecting spray materials that are less toxic to beneficials.

Chemical

Apply recommended insecticides beginning 85 – 100 GDD base 50˚F after sustained trap catches (biofix), which usually coincide with berry-touch or when degree day models reach the action threshold.

If action threshold is reached while some bushes are still in bloom, use materials that are listed as relatively safe for pollinators/parasitoids in chart below that are listed as relatively safe for pollinators/parasitoids.

Avoid use of insecticides with seasonal use restrictions that may be needed for Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) control later in the season.

Rotate insecticides from different IRAC groups to reduce the chance of resistance development in the pest.

Use pesticides that are less toxic to predators (e.g., insect growth regulators or B.t. products) to promote populations of natural enemies. Table 1: Details of insecticide options and timing for fruitworm control in blueberry as of 2016 * = Restricted Use Material ⊗ = OMRI approved for Organic Production Summary Management Table: * = Restricted Use Material ⊗ = OMRI approved for Organic Production

See the 2017 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Berry Crops for application rates and additional information. Some of the materials listed in this table may not be approved for use in NYS. Check the NYS DEC portal for specific information.

E-Alert ~ May 20, 2020

Berry Office Hours 


Please join us on Thursday, May 21stat 12:30pm to discuss general pest management questions. If you send pictures in advance we can share them and have a better understanding of the problem.

Click link below to join the Berry Office Hours

https://cornell.zoom.us/j/95514586018

Or dial by phone: 1-646-518-9805

Meeting ID: 955 1458 6018

Berry Update Frost events all last week caused varying degrees of damage as temperatures were inversely cold as you went south in the region, and that is where bud development was most progressed.

Much, if not all, the early varieties of June bearing strawberries were lost to freezing temperatures from Albany south. Some farms were able to irrigate on the final night of the nearly 5 day frost event – that night may have been the coldest as winds died. The irrigation over plants and even over row covering may have helped save some of the secondary and tertiary blossoms that were not damaged during earlier, high wind frost.

For the most part blueberries were unscathed. Some of the most southern regions where bloom had begun may have a significant loss in early varieties. A few areas that had temperatures dip into low 20’s will likely see loss even in varieties that were still in early pink. I am still optimistic that damage will be sporadic and a good pollination season will help encourage fruit set.

Raspberry growers report flower and even leaf damage due to the cold windy weather. These plants will bounce back. Winter cane damage in blackberry that is just showing up now is not unusual. Flagging buds on some canes could indicate winter damage, but also look for root zone pests or disease that could spell more long term trouble. More To Do: Strawberries

Help move harvest forward by using row covers BEFORE bloom. Use row cover to encourage growth and development of your mid-season and late varieties that lag behind. This year we may see strong U-Pick interest. The best advantage may be to the late varieties, AC Valley Sunset and especially Malwena. Use a mid-weight row cover to encourage heat units if our temps stay cool. This could advance the variety by 2-4 days.

Angular leaf spot lesions, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae, on the underside of the leaf. If held up to the light and viewed from the backside, these lesions would be translucent.

Photo: Frank J. Louws.

Bacterial angular leaf spot could definitely be a challenge this year. It’s been identified in several plantings – especially where overhead irrigation was used for frost protection. Avoid overhead irrigation if at all possible as this will spread the disease. Apply Kocide in at least 20 gallons of water and use higher rates if we have continued rainy, overcast weather or more need of frost protection. Badge formulations require a 48 hour REI. Look for signs of crop injury with repeated copper sprays. Oxidate can also be used when conditions first appear, but take care if tank mixing due to compatibility issues.

Girdled strawberry buds caused by strawberry bud weevil (clipper) has been seen, as well as tarnished plant bugs in two Capital District planting, and are likely throughout the region. Don't spray insecticides in bloom, but scout fields near hedgerows first. If you see 3 clipped primary buds/meter of row that is the treatment threshold. The challenge is that spraying insecticides during bloom is strongly discouraged, so scout before bloom in your mid and late season varieties. Brigade, Danitol, Sevin can all be used and Pyganic will help organic growers. Also, don't mow adjacent hay fields - that will drive clipper and TPB into your berries - as well as early leafhoppers.

Scout for the tarnished plant bug nymphs, shake 30 flower clusters (six clusters in five different locations) over a plate. If four or more of the clusters out of the 30 sampled have any nymphs, control measures should be taken. Insecticide options include Assail, Brigade, Danitol, and PyGanic.

Weak or stunted plants may indicate root problems. Now is a good time to evaluate for root weevils and red stele disease. To diagnose Phytophthora or red stele, pull up a few plants that look weak and scrape the roots of these plants to see if the center is reddish orange in color. Red stele is caused by a soil pathogen that infects roots when soils are wet with temperatures around 50°F and the symptoms are most evident in the spring. Ridomil Gold®, Alliette® or Phostrol® are fungicides that can be applied in the late fall or early spring for control of red stele. In newly planted beds, RootShield® may be applied as a pre-plant root dip to help prevent infections.

Root weevil larvae can be found at root zone now - you can start to look for leaf notching as well. < Blueberries Fungicide applications right before bloom will help prevent fruit molds and some canker diseases. Indar, Bravo and Tilt have been shown to provide best protection for wide variety of diseases. The timing needs to be perfect and we are likely past the window for all but most northern plantings. If you missed this spray this year – make a note in your phone calendar for early April to try and get this spray on the plants at the right time.

Lots of flower buds and no leaves ?? This keeps surfacing and could be caused by lots of different things. Most importantly look for root zone problems. If that doesn’t seem to be the case, it might be hormonal disruption caused by winter damage. NJ specialist Gary Pavlis advises to strip the fruit off the plant which will help the plant reset. The fruit on those plants will likely not size anyway so there is no loss.

Monitor for cranberry and cherry fruitworm . Pheromone traps can be used to monitor male populations of these pests and helps to identify the initial flight into a planting. Lures are available for both species. Traps should be placed during bloom with a minimum 50’ buffer between them. Monitor trap catches twice weekly and remove moths caught each time you check in order to identify when sustained captures occur. Secondary scouting can be done for egg laying by inspecting the calyx end of green fruit with a hand lens. Scout the periphery of the planting especially near woods and hedgerows. Imidan, Asana, Lannate and Exirel are all labelled for control at petal fall. If you’ve had this problem before, be ready to control these pests. Brambles Pre-bloom to Bloom is the best time to control cane insect pests. If cane and crown borers have been problems in the past. Soil drenches or foliar sprays directed at lower half of canes are helpful. Brigade, Bifenture and Admire Pro are options. Cultural control of removing infested canes will also help if tactic is thorough. Ribes Currants and gooseberries have set strigs throughout all parts of the region including the north. Frost damage may have occurred in some southerly regions, but fruit set is slightly less vulnerable so hopefully the crop will be intact. COVID-19 Safety Plans Required for All Businesses in "New York Forward"

Richard Stup, Cornell University New York Forward is the state’s plan to begin re-opening in phases as regions of the state achieve certain COVID-19 management metrics. An important part of New York Forward is for all businesses to have a customized, written safety plan that details specifically how each business will prevent and manage COVID-19. Details for particular industries, including agriculture can be found here: https://forward.ny.gov/industries-reopening-phase.

All Farms Need a Plan

All farms are required to have a written plan, this includes essential, food-producing farms (e.g., dairy, fruit, vegetable) that have been open all along, and non-food-producing farms (e.g., ornamental horticulture, equine). The state provides a Business Safety Plan Template that farmers can use to meet the requirement. Completed safety plans do “not need to be submitted to a state agency for approval but must be retained on the premises of the business and must (be) made available to the New York State Department of Health (DOH) or local health or safety authorities in the event of an inspection.” If a business already has a prior written plan that addresses some or all of the issues in the safety plan, then that plan can be updated to current guidelines and used as the safety plan. A Cornell Extension team is working to develop further educational resources to help farms with safety plan compliance.

New Guidelines for Non-Food Farms

Detailed Guidelines for Non-Food Agriculture (e.g., ornamental horticulture, equine) is part of the New York Forward plan. These businesses may re-open as of May 15 if they are in a region that meets the state’s metrics, they have a safety plan developed, and they are actively carrying out all aspects of that plan. Note that the state instructs farms at the end of the guidance document to “affirm that you have read and understand your obligation to operate in accordance with this guidance: https://forms.ny.gov/s3/ny-forward-affirmation”.

Enforcement

It is not entirely clear at this time how the state will enforce the New York Forward guidance but most likely enforcement will be complaint driven as incidents arise. The New York Forward plan includes an online form and phone number for anyone to file a complaint, the NY State Department of Labor has a separate online form for employees to file COVID-19-related complaints against their employers. Certainly, businesses will need to provide their safety plans in the event of an actual COVID-19 case or outbreak in the business. Enforcement, however, should not be the primary motivating factor. Farm businesses should develop safety plans and continue safety practices to protect employees, customers, services providers, neighbors, and communities because it is the right thing to do.

Risk Management

A likely outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic is an increase in lawsuits: customers might sue businesses they interacted with and employees might sue their employers for real or perceived injuries. These are highly uncertain times but farm businesses can take steps to help control the risk of being sued and improve their ability to defend themselves in court. This topic deserves a more complete discussion, but for now, consider taking every action you can to: 1. understand government requirements, 2. develop plans and procedures to meet requirements, 3. enforce discipline and compliance with established procedures in your workplace, and 4. document your plans, actions, and important decisions that affect employees and customers.

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This article, COVID-19 Safety Plans Required for All Businesses in “New York Forward” appeared first in The Ag Workforce Journal.

  • CCE ENYCHP BERRY OFFICE HOURS

    U-Pick Information for 2020 Season,

    Weekly Berry Office Hours held on Thursdays at 12:30pm via Zoom or on your phone. Format will be a short, in-depth presentation about a production issue and then Q&A. Join each week, or view recordings that will be posted.
    Thursday, April 30
    Best Management Practices for U-Pick During the COVID-19 Pandemic


    Click link below to join the Berry Office Hours
    https://cornell.zoom.us/j/95514586018

    Or dial by phone: 1-646-518-9805
    Meeting ID: 955 1458 6018
    Join by Skype for Business
    https://cornell.zoom.us/skype/95514586018


    Don’t hesitate to call or email me if you have questions or comments.

    Be Well,
    Laura McDermott
    Lgm4@cornell.edu
    518-791-5038

    CCE ENYCHP BERRY E-ALERT

    Dear Eastern NY Berry Growers,

    April 16, 2020 COVID-19 information: I’ll try and post info that I think has the most importance to you as berry growers. I will likely miss things, but will do my best. Here is a link for Guidance for Executive Order 202.16: created for employers to address and answer questions you or your employees may have regarding “face coverings”. https://coronavirus.health.ny.gov/system/files/documents/2020/04/doh_covid19_eo20216employeefacecovering_041420.pdf
    Cornell and NYS experts are hard at work on recommendations for pick-your-own operations in light of COVID-19. Stay tuned – we will post more information when it’s available.

    Don’t hesitate to call or email me if you have questions or comments.

    Be Well,
    Laura McDermott Lgm4@cornell.edu
    518-791-5038 Berry "To Do" List:
    All berries can be pruned if the buds have yet to open. Early season herbicides can be applied if you know your soil temps are still cool enough to prevent crop damage, and if crop is not actively growing. Last week I made reference to the use of Chateau in strawberries. This material should not be applied if strawberries are actively growing – which is likely the case for all but the most northern plantings. Additionally, the Prowl H2O label for blueberries expired in 2019, so that material is no longer legal to spray on blueberries. The problem was plant damage due to the spray.
    Rabbit and vole damage abound. Space around planting including hedge rows, should be kept as trimmed as possible to prevent hiding places for critters.
    Blueberries: Blueberry buds are swelling in all areas with bud break and even slight green tip showing in the lower Hudson Valley. The cool weather this past week has slowed overall progress. Pruning still possible where bud break hasn’t yet occurred.

    • Spray for mummyberry disease –Mummyberries look like tiny black pumpkins. They can be on the ground or still hanging on the plant. If you saw mummyberry last year, you can control by raking off and/or removing the ground cover – including the sod. Then re-mulch over the top. This works better than any fungicide spray. Manure or urea sprays on the mummies will also help. There are a number of sprays including lime-sulfur, Serenade, Double Nickel and Indar.
    • Join me on Thursday, April 16 th for “office hours” starting at 12:30 PM, there will be a short (10 min) presentation, this week on MUMMYBERRY disease, then time for Q&A. Join by clicking this link : https://cornell.zoom.us/j/103904012, or you can call 1-646-518-9805, meeting ID: 103 904 012
    • Look for scale insects . Dormant oil will help control them as will Brigade, Triple Crown or Esteem when used as crawlers appear in early spring.
      Scale on blueberry shoots.
    • Apply sulfur if soil pH is higher than 5.2 200#/A is the maintenance rate that should be applied 1-2 times annually to prevent soil pH from creeping up. Remember that the target pH is 4.5.
    • Review past years foliar nutrient recommendations and make sure your fertility plan is in line. If you have never done foliar sampling, add a reminder to your phone that this should be done in early August.

    Strawberries:

    • Remove straw from June bearing strawberries NOW!! The longer the plant is covered in straw – and thus kept away from light – the less carbohydrates the crown has available to support flower and berry production. If you were able to remove straw earlier – then cover with two rows of heavy row cover – the plant could get light but still be kept warm during this protracted spring. Studies have shown that delaying the removal of winter straw mulch results in a yield decrease of as much as 27% mostly in terms of total berry numbers, not individual berry size. The decrease in loss caused by delay of straw mulch removal can be as much as the loss caused by winter injury if you had never mulched them at all. Work done by Marvin Pritts (Pritts, M. P., K. A. Worden and M. Eames-Sheavly. 1988. Rowcover material and time of application and removal affect ripening and yield of strawberry . Jour. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 114:531-536) indicated that the best results were from treatments where the straw mulch was applied later in the winter (Dec. to February!) and then removed at the earliest possible time – in the case of this study at the end of February. This consistently yielded best winter survival and best overall productivity likely because it allowed plants to get access to light early.
    • Keep eye out for overwintering pests – like cyclamen mite. Cyclamen mites are difficult to detect and manage, but cause leaves to be stunted and malformed as they emerge from the crown. Removing obviously infested plants.
    • Plan for frost protection inspect irrigation equipment and row cover. Make sure you have some type of adequate temperature detection system at the field level.
    • Plan to get the most from of your pest management According to Dr. Annemiek Schilder formerly of Michigan State University, the pH of the spray solution, has a huge impact on efficacy of material. While most fungicides are stable over a range of pH values, some fungicides (e.g., Captan, Dithane, Rovral) can degrade under alkaline conditions. For example, the half-life of Captan is 32 hours at pH 5, eight hours at pH 7, and 10 minutes at pH 8. The pH can be adjusted with an acidifying or buffering agent. Avoid letting the spray sit overnight in the spray tank. Fungicides should, whenever possible, be mixed and sprayed as soon after mixing as possible.

    Brambles: Floricane raspberries breaking bud in the lower Hudson Valley. Primocane raspberries have been slow to emerge – but some of these plantings are starting to stir now and canes in lower Hudson Valley are several inches tall.

    • Complete the necessary Pruning : After you finish blueberry pruning you can begin with brambles. Remember to keep cane density at no more than 4 canes per square foot. There may be some winter injury so look for that and prune it out. Look for disease or insect issues as you prune.

    Ribes - Prune bushes before budbreak – gooseberries and currants do well if 4-5 year old wood is removed. Canes should be removed from the crown. Inspect for pest issues while pruning.

    Honeyberries/hascaps – these plants are in the honeysuckle family. They are very winter hardy, but bloom very early and are thus prone to frost damage.